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WBS – per PMBOK – and how it ties to #Recursion – Discrete Math Class

11 May

Question was…

“Describe a situation in your professional or personal life when recursion, or at least the principle of recursion, played a role in accomplishing a task, such as a large chore that could be decomposed into smaller chunks that were easier to handle separately, but still had the semblance of the overall task.

Did you track the completion of this task in any way to ensure that no pieces were left undone, much like an algorithm keeps placeholders to trace a way back from a recursive trajectory?

If so, how did you do it? If not, why did you not?”

There's ALWAYS math at the core?

There’s ALWAYS math at the core? “The Universal Language” they call it

And my answer, was…

Work
Breakdown
Structure

(Finally!)

WBS’s are what many of you have already put out there; i.e. at a large Corporate Customer of mine, I participated in large rollout, slated for about two years – yet, as they were somewhat similar in nature, given that the ‘target’ audience was always the same (Branches, Regional Offices, and Corporate) they were all ‘tagged’ under the exact same project number.

That it’d later mushroom into filling out a whole wing/building with a call center, trainers, engineers, contractors for the phone system, etc. did NOT matter – it was all ONE project

  • Enter WBS’s

That’s the PMBOK (Project Management Book of Knowledge) way to ‘describe’ not only the breaking-down of the actual tasks (and the actuarials that ensue, as for example, we had a whole team dealing their way of naming an Exception Process, where a 600+ step technical hardware installation manual had to stop due to technical incompatibilities that required a VERY human interface to negotiate with multiple stakeholders, work on assessing impact and even ROI (Return on Investment) as the overall relationship between Branches and Corporate somehow echoed that of Franchisors and Franchisees, giving Franchisees a lot of latitude in Capital Investitures like these, etc…)

Anyway…. that’s the anecdotal: Theoretically, then…

https://www.workbreakdownstructure.com/work-breakdown-structure-according-to-pmbok.php

(Does that NOT look like a fractal?… I mean, a graph from the textbook?)

Relevant excerpt?

“According to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK®), and the Practice Standard for Work Breakdown Structures – Second Edition from the Project Management Institute (PMI), the work breakdown structure can be used to effectively decompose the project scope, to improve estimating, to better control the project execution and to more accurately verify project completion. In addition, using a work breakdown structure approach summarizes project information to improve the opportunity for use of historical information, which, can aid in both speed and accuracy of future projects. The work breakdown structure is a repeatable process that can be used as a template for future projects.” (PMBOK, 2013)

Hence, the ‘recursiveness’ of these projects – which as mirrored by my Customer’s experience, where they were able to ‘boilerplate’ these projects/rollouts, onto something that’s somewhat repeatable – yet mold it to fit the scope and constraints, and above, all, the budget of each – which as I mentioned earlier, had a lot do to with the way the entire structure was legally incorporated, as those were the boundaries, that much like a ‘Demarc’ (anyone who’s been in telco – telecommunications – knows that’s the lingo for “rat’s-nest-filled-with-a-gajillion-bits-of-twisted-pair-and-orange-tags-that-only-a-tech-can-decipher”) = ‘Demarcation Point’

So yes, how does ‘recursiveness’ extend to the real world?… look around!… any Franchise/Branch of a nationwide or regional entity, most likely, there are processes that a Project Manager oversees – and tickles, tackles and otherwise shapes to fit the needs and budgets allowed to move ‘forward’ – in a remarkable fashion, when one considers that the endpoints at said Customer’s project? about a quarter million, ONLY at the Branch/Franchise levels!

Now, since it was asked as to ‘how’ it was tracked, a bit more on the ‘what’ is being tracked?

“A work breakdown structure is deliverable-oriented. So what is a deliverable? In a word, it can best be described as a noun. What is the difference between “write xyz specifications” and “xyz specifications”? One describes the end product and the other describes a single step to produce it. The end product is described as a noun without a verb. A deliverable can be delegated to a team or leader who can then be responsible for the work product and complete work should be returned when complete. A work breakdown structure is complete when all of the deliverables necessary to obtain the project goals are identified.

A work breakdown structure is a hierarchy. That means that deliverables can be further decomposed into parent and child relationships. In this case “xyz specification” may be further decomposed into “xyz functional specifications” and “xyz performance specifications”. It is important that if decomposing the deliverable that the lower child decomposition represents 100% of the parent. This is similar to how we learned to outline our writing in our freshman English class. We can continue decomposing the deliverables until we feel comfortable that we have defined in a way that we can effectively manage and control the project.

Simply put the work breakdown structure technique divides projects into smaller more manageable chunks that can be more easily estimated and controlled. It gives a black and white version of the work effort needed and almost as important if the work is not in the work breakdown structure it is not a part of the project. The work should be decomposed until it is clear to teams performing the work. This provides a clear line of sight between the work and the goals for the project.” (ibid)

  • Enter MS Project

I’ll wrap up this paste up with a word on an app many cannot live without (per above, as you can see, PMBOK applies to MANY disciplines – not only I.T.)

http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/project-help/create-work-breakdown-structure-wbs-codes-HA010156785.aspx

Relevant excerpt:

“Outline numbers

Outline numbers are the simplest type of WBS coding. Microsoft Office Project automatically calculates an outline number for each task, basing the numbering on the outline structure of the task list. For example, the first task in your task list is numbered 1. If that task has three subtasks, the subtasks are numbered 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3.

Outline numbers consist of numbers only (no letters), and you cannot edit them. They do, however, change automatically when you move a task up or down in the task list and when you indent or outdent tasks. For example, if a subtask currently has an outline number of 3.5.4, and if you move it up one row in the list, the outline number is automatically updated to 3.5.3. If you then outdent that same subtask, the outline number is automatically updated to 3.6.” (Microsoft.Com, 2013)

So I guess Indices and other typographical artifacts, again, straddle that boundary of logic and usefulness?

@Kankuchito on Twitter/Instagram/Tumblr & Pinterest

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Imaginative Recursions? On .JPEG Compression – and DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) – Discrete Math Class

10 Apr

The question being…

” Describe an activity in terms of its iterative components, such as solving a Sudoku puzzle, a game of chess or backgammon.

Please mention any recursive elements that may occur…”

And the answer, of course…

Iterative Recursions?

Games?

Howzabout compressing Images?

– Enter Rasterization

Meaning, how do you think we’ve been shuffling, schlepping and otherwise compressing those beautifuls shots, first over a feeble 2,400 BPS Modem (took a while, BUT in most cases, it was worth the while!)

First JPEG’s (or .jpg’s as they’re commonly known) made a big hit back in the late nineties, allowing for higher definition images to be a part of a website – besides those cheesy .GIF’s which yes, could be animated, but once one wanted a bit more resolution and color, ended up becoming larger and larger files…

(and I tag this as a “Game” as I’m having a ball with a suite of about six apps, my “Pocket Photoshop” which I use to shoot, edit, composite, bubble and prep for my portfolio)

#Prismacolor Crayons? Look again!

#Prismacolor Crayons? Look again!

So what’s rasterization?

It’s a process whereby a grid is created, and yes, each single individual point (pixel) has a very unique identity; for a print image for example, values that include its Pantone Colorization, as to allow CMYK Color Separation, along with other types of metadata required for the downstream print equipment, like channels to allow for perfect outlines, “Alpha Channels” that allowed for literally split hairs to BE printed OR not, masks, etc, they were all layered in these .psd (Photoshop) files, which then had to be reconverted as .EPS (Encapsulated PostScript!… talk about MATH!)… so yes, how does one quickly shuffle a preview file?

“Typical usage

The JPEG compression algorithm is at its best on photographs and paintings of realistic scenes with smooth variations of tone and color. For web usage, where the amount of data used for an image is important, JPEG is very popular. JPEG/Exif is also the most common format saved by digital cameras.

On the other hand, JPEG may not be as well suited for line drawings and other textual or iconic graphics, where the sharp contrasts between adjacent pixels can cause noticeable artifacts. Such images may be better saved in a lossless graphics format such as TIFF, GIF, PNG, or a raw image format. The JPEG standard actually includes a lossless coding mode, but that mode is not supported in most products.

As the typical use of JPEG is a lossy compression method, which somewhat reduces the image fidelity, it should not be used in scenarios where the exact reproduction of the data is required (such as some scientific and medical imaging applications and certain technical image processing work).

JPEG is also not well suited to files that will undergo multiple edits, as some image quality will usually be lost each time the image is decompressed and recompressed, particularly if the image is cropped or shifted, or if encoding parameters are changed – see digital generation loss for details. To avoid this, an image that is being modified or may be modified in the future can be saved in a lossless format, with a copy exported as JPEG for distribution.

JPEG compression

JPEG uses a lossy form of compression based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT). This mathematical operation converts each frame/field of the video source from the spatial (2D) domain into the frequency domain (aka transform domain.) A perceptual model based loosely on the human psychovisual system discards high-frequency information, i.e. sharp transitions in intensity, and color hue. In the transform domain, the process of reducing information is called quantization. In laymen’s terms, quantization is a method for optimally reducing a large number scale (with different occurrences of each number) into a smaller one, and the transform-domain is a convenient representation of the image because the high-frequency coefficients, which contribute less to the over picture than other coefficients, are characteristically small-values with high compressibility. The quantized coefficients are then sequenced and losslessly packed into the output bitstream. Nearly all software implementations of JPEG permit user control over the compression-ratio (as well as other optional parameters), allowing the user to trade off picture-quality for smaller file size. In embedded applications (such as miniDV, which uses a similar DCT-compression scheme), the parameters are pre-selected and fixed for the application.” (Wiki, 2013)

So maybe I do not play games… but I’m sure many in the audience are staring at these, right now!

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JPEG

“A Month Away From Spring’s Equinox’s” (a/k/a: #3rdWinter/Day31) & #HelpRon #HelpsKlout?

19 Feb

En Castellano, Traduciendo y Expandiendo:

Okidoki; no posts via @WordPressDotCom for a WHOLE week!… #WhatGives?

@Klout!

Been to The TimeLine lately? (as in the wee hours of THIS morning?)

It’s all there, so to better understand my mind’s perpetual #ScavengerHunt modality, skim here, scan pics here and there, AND then take a look at your OWN Klout Score!

Why? Appears to be a new Job Requirement, that’s why!

(En Castellano, les contare e interpretare pronto!)

Au Revoir!

20120219-084655.jpg

20120219-084703.jpg

20120219-084712.jpg

20120219-084744.jpg

10 things you still need to know about social media / social business.

9 Feb
1

Hola!

Five languages? A Polyglot libro! #Kudos!

First stop today!

https://twitter.com/fjpalacio/status/167586897684742144

The BrandBuilder Blog

Since I am bouncing around Europe this week, (come say hi at #tsc12 if you can), now is a good time to republish this list from a few months ago. It is still as relevant today as it was then:

1. “Social” is something you are, not something you doIf your company culture doesn’t focus on building relationships with your customers, then chances are that you won’t use social media to do it either. The “media” doesn’t dictate how social a company is or isn’t. It simply enhances its ability to be a social business – if in fact it is – or illustrates the extent to which it isn’t.

2. You cannot effectively outsource customer relationships to an agency. Research and intelligence, sure: that can be outsourced. Creative? That too. Implementing technologies and helping you with strategy? You bet. Marketing, PR and advertising?…

View original post 986 more words

#HootSuite – Social Media Dashboard – Announces #HTML5 Rollout and host of other features (#FaveApps) (#InCaseYouMissedIt)

29 Jun

[REPRINTED FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE MEDIA MENTORING SOCIETY AUDIENCE]

  • Filed under #Homework #FaveApps #Dashboards #ThirdParty Apps
  • Credit/Source: Ryan Holmes – HootSuite [newsletter@hootsuite.com]


HootSuite5 with HTML5

HootSuite5 with HTML5

HootSuite users will see significant changes to the social media dashboard today beginning with a completely refreshed HTML5 user interface, plus geo-located search, native Twitter ReTweets, and integrated Google Analytics.

With the recent announcement of Google’s HTML5 site and many other brands like Apple on-board, HootSuite has made a substantial investment in this new technology standard. HTML5 allows us to release unique features like geo-search and drag & drop, plus improve performance with more responsive tabs and streams.

Geo-Searchable

Now, search for tweets by proximity based on geo-location information sent by some (not all) users. Using this HTML 5 powered feature, you can narrow down results to messages sent from your area, wherever you are. This feature will help you learn about local resources, get tips while traveling, and find new customers or followers.

Geo-Search in HootSuite 5

Analytics in Dashboard

Google Analytics users no longer need to switch screens to analyze site traffic and performance because all the data is now available in HootSuite’s dashboard. Using OAuth secure login functionality, you can track conversion to sales, lead generation, or other metrics from your Google Analytics, using advanced URL functions.

Analytics in dashboard

More Tools

Other new tools to help broadcast messages, monitor conversations, and track results include:

Themes to choose in HootSuite

Interface Re-creation and Themes

The most noticeable change is a fully re-imagined dashboard, with more space for updates and an intuitive arrangement for HootSuite’s many features. Additionally, you can now choose a design theme which suits your tastes.

Options include the familiar green & blue “Classic,” the sleek & stunning “Blue Steel,” or the darkly cool “Magnum.” Which one will you choose? Switch at your leisure to find your favorite.

Facebook Media Preview

Include a photo when you upload a link to Facebook, and then add titles and descriptions to make your update more meaningful and inviting. BTW, this media preview functionality was one of the most requested features on the Feedback Channel.

Native ReTweets now in HootSuite

New or Ol’school RTs

When Twitter launched, early users created shorthand to define actions and attributes, including @replies for addressing, #hashtags for context, and RT for Re-Tweeting or quoting a message which became a powerful way to spread messages beyond users’ local networks.

To standardize the process, Twitter.com added an auto-Re-Tweet functionality, which HootSuite has now integrated. HootSuite users can choose whether to Re-Tweet with initials “RT” or to use the Twitter web native auto-Re-Tweet tool.

We can now check this one off the feature request list.

Drag it, Drop it, Send it

Quickly attach an image or other file to your social update by dragging directly from the desktop and dropping into the message box — this simple act will auto-upload the file to Ow.ly file sharing and add a pre-shortened link to your message. Then you are ready to send your enhanced note to any of your social networks.

HootSuite Localized for Japanese

Language Localization

Konnichiwa! This release also features interface localization in Japanese, allowing more users to enjoy HootSuite in their native language. More linguistic choices are coming soon, to spread the international enjoyment.

Keyboard Shortcuts

Clicking Shift+Enter on the keyboard now sends the update, saving mouse-clicks and time — another popular user-requested feature.

Handier Help

Listening and learning from HootSuite’s userbase is an important part of making decisions which meet the needs of social media marketers and enthusiasts. HootSuite offers assistance via a Help Desk and and gathers opinions via a Feedback Channel.

With the new release, these channels are easier to access directly right from the HootSuite dashboard. We invite you to share your ideas, and to enjoy a sense of pride when your requested feature is added to a future release.

Twitter Status

The World Cup football/soccer tournament in South Africa has shown the worldwide popularity of Twitter as fans everywhere document their opinions and the nuances of each match. This popularity is also evidenced in the massive demand on Twitter’s systems especially at gametime.

Keep tabs on uptime and performance via Twitter’s status blog and API Status on dev.twitter.com.

Media Resources

Press release – meda announcement about this release:
http://ow.ly/21XAc

Media Kit – company descriptions, logos, executive bios and media contact info:
http://blog.hootsuite.com/media

Social bookmarks – media and blog articles referencing HootSuite:
http://delicious.com/hootsuite HootSuite is a Trademark of HootSuite Media, Inc. More: HootSuite Online Media Kit.

#Facebook Talks: A Thought on #Social/#New #Media – And #Graduating in 2010 (#MMS)

27 Feb

Someone just recently asked me about LinkedIN and their graduation; a conversation ensued in FB Mail, so I took this looooong answer and created a blog post; also helps me showcase the rationales to a few other friends who think the water it’s too cold, deep, or otherwise murky to ‘dive in’…

[SPLASHES INTO A CANNONBALL!]

@ [OLD FBF!]

“Love reading the stuff you post!” (OLD FBF, 2010)

[SIDE SMILE… PUZZLED LOOK]

Really? then I’d make you my ONE reader!

[CHUCKLES… GUFFAWS]

Seriously; it’s sometimes a weird feeling when the ‘interacting’ stops, I know it was more profuse in the past because of specifics such as the election, the length of this recession (which by now has all worn us down to a nub!) and other topics.

Now I think most of the talk happens in FarmVille land, and that little time is available to talk; also, content has exponentially been ‘induced’ into Facebook, so the amounts are just overwhelming…

… and for someone about to graduate, I think time for you is like the most precious commodity, ain’t it?

[SNICKERS… SIGHS…]

Anyway… yeah, y’all 2010 Grads will be facing a HISTORICALLY sucky market; the good news?

Y’all are also the MOST talented ‘generation’ of grads to come out; many ascribe it to the fact that you’re ‘digitally enabled’

IMHO?

Just got a note from a Toastmasters in Dubai.

Go Global.
Expose Yourself
Curate these Sites as though your life depended on IT!
LinkedIN? PAY for the upgrade, and make it a point of getting PAST those 500+ connections in a minute; there, it’s obvious why you’re asking, so be courteous, yet assertive
Here? Create a Professional FB ‘Fan’ Page; make it ‘sound’ like your LinkedIN Profile (100% Business)
Use Networked Blogs to add some cool RSS’ing to it; creates a REASON to fan it; and for some of us, a reason to @Mention, Share and interact with YOUR Fan Page here in FB
…. and last but NOT least?

Dude… get on TWITTER!!!!

ASAP!

That’s where a LOT of people are getting their “Ticker Tape” fix… remember Homer Adams watching it intently?

That’s my best analogy for it; it’s fresh, breaking, and above all, relevant information.

Me?

Check out the info tab, there’s a handful of ID’s, pick at least:

@MMSocieties
@FJPalacio

The others are ‘convo’ -specific (i.e. Oralisimo = #LATISM; Papparazzos = #TOGS, etc)

AND LEARN THE LINGO!

Want more?

Sign up for our Meetup.Com place, I post all the vids, and most relevant of all, that’s the only place to get our ‘Slides’.

http://MediaMentoring.Net.

Okidoki, hope this helps – and answers! some more questions, Mr. Graduate

F.

P.S: Coffee? SURE!… the whole point of FBF’s is that eventually we DO get to meet them FTF!…

[CACKLES!]

O Tempora, O Mores!

Ci vedeamo!

[HUMS HAPPILY… THINKS TO HIMSELF: “I have a reader! at least ONE reader out there!… yay!”]

(;OD)~

#MMS: Market & Audience Rationales: “Behind The Scenes With Newspaper Journalists”

28 Jan
(Posted on Facebook by Spero Canton on Friday, October 23, 2009 at 10:16am)

This is a synopsis of a 66 page report which can be found at: http://www.mediamanagementcenter.org/research/lifebeyondprint.asp

According to a new report: “Life beyond print: Newspaper journalists’ digital appetite” by the Media Management Center, Northwestern University, almost half of today’s newspaper journalists think their newsroom’s transition from print to digital is moving too slowly, as they have no trouble envisioning a career where news is delivered primarily online and to mobile devices instead of in print.
MMC executive director Michael P. Smith, says “For several years we have heard that it is the journalists’ resistance to change that was holding newspapers back… this study shows that they are ready, and some are even impatient, for change.”
Now it appears that America’s journalists want a quicker transformation from print to digital delivery of the news, a study of almost 3,800 people in a cross-section of newspaper newsrooms shows. Many of these journalists are heavily engaged in digital activities in their personal lives and would like to devote more effort to digital products at work. But most of their time in the newsroom is still spent on print responsibilities. Only 20% of the workforce like things the way they are or yearn for the good old days.
Life Beyond Print, a study by Vickey Williams, Stacy Lynch and Bob LeBailly, assembles profiles of six types of journalists inhabiting the typical newspaper newsroom in 2009. They range from the “Digitals” (12% of the workforce) who spend a majority of their efforts online today, to the “Turn Back the Clock” contingent (6%), who long for the day when print was king.
Fully half of newsroom workers wish to do “Moderately More” online, arriving at something closer to an equal split with their print efforts, requiring a doubling of the effort they spend today. Those in the “Major Shift” profile (11%) would devote five times their current effort to online if given their druthers.
Newspaper journalists still love their jobs: Despite industry turmoil:
• 77% of journalists are somewhat or very satisfied with their current jobs
• 67% think it somewhat or very likely they will be in the news business two years from now
• 59% think they’ll likely be with their same newspaper
Online desire in the newsroom is not determined by age, years of journalism experience, or proximity to retirement. And youth is not a factor in predicting who in the newsroom wants to move into digital. Rather, the top two predictors of digital appetite are heavy Internet use outside work and having knowledge of online audiences and their preferences.
Previous Readership Institute research has proven the importance of customer knowledge as a first step in building media use, says the report. Real customer focus also includes acting on the results and letting customer needs drive internal decision-making. This study offers a new reason why knowing the audience is important… it helps stimulate a desire to transition to online work. Other predictors of digital appetite include:
• Openness to change at work and adaptability
• Proactive pursuit of the training necessary to learn online skills
• Keeping up with companywide initiatives and industry developments
The study creates these profiles of journalists:
Digitals, about 12% of the workforce, spend most of their time working online. They’re the youngest group, with an average age of 38, and 59% believe the digital transformation is taking too long in their newsroom. They follow big-picture trends, want to quicken the pace These journalists are most likely to be online editors or producers, but about 17% are reporters or writers. Overall, they’re newer to journalism than any other group.
Digitals score highly on factors that relate to adaptability – such as openness to change and work and career proactivity. They’re similar to leaders in this and many other respects. They’re most apt to describe themselves as the first to try something new at work and as having career options.
In a key finding, digital employees label themselves markedly more knowledgeable about consumers of digital, and at the same level of print reader knowledge as their print counterparts. Overall they are much more aware of customer behaviors and needs.
Other findings:
• More than half of the Digitals have undergraduate or graduate degrees in journalism
• 23% have no post-secondary journalism training
• 42% have been in the news business less than 10 years
• 11% have been journalists for more than 30 years
• The average age is the youngest for any segment
Major Shift, at 11%, are the most dissatisfied with their current state, more pessimistic about staying in the business long-term and want the most pronounced change. This group – roughly an equal mix of reporters, mid-level editors, copy editors, designers and videographers, most of whom have been in the business at least 15 years – would like to devote five times their current effort to online. They’re deeply engaged online in their personal lives, but see a disconnect at work. They could help the newsroom adapt faster, but need a sign they should stay in newspapers.
Moderately More, the largest segment at 50% and encompassing many reporters and mid-level editors, want a roughly equal split between online and print work. Half the newsroom believes their newsroom transition has been too slow and would be comfortable seeing their job duties shift moderately more online. But by nearly a 2-1 margin, they believe the newsroom is headed in the right direction.
Some of the Moderately More defining characteristics include:
• Their ideal job would be divided about 50-50 between print and online effort, requiring a doubling of their digital effort today.
• They tend to have been in the business more than 20 years
• 43% are reporters and another 22% are mid-level editors
• They would hire more reporters and editors, improve print content and improve the Web site design, in that order.
The Status Quo segment, at 14%, believe the 30% of effort they currently devote to online is sufficient and expect little disruption to the way they work now. In newsrooms where improving digital performance is a top strategic priority, this group will need a wake-up call. These journalists believe the evolution of newspapers has gone far enough. Just less than a third of their current effort centers online and they would prefer to see no change.
Most of the Status Quos believe the pace of change to date has been “about right,” whether in respect to their own job or newsroom-wide change. They forecast more moderate or minimal changes to come than the rest of the newsroom. This group is slightly older than the overall population. Nearly half are age 50 or older and 1-in-10 is 60 or older.
If put in command, they would:
• First hire more reporters and editors
• Invest in improving print content
• Support online investment, but third after print improvements and increasing manpower
Turn Back the Clock segment represents 6% of journalists who wish it would all go away. This part of the staff would go more heavily into print if they could. They report about 30% of their current effort is spent online, nearly triple the amount they would prefer. This is a group that has tested the online environment and they don’t like it.
This group weighs toward reporters and photographers and they closely mirror the newsroom average for age and years until retirement. What particularly sets them apart from others is their low levels of adaptability. Asked to rate themselves on openness to change, how they approach change at work, and career resilience, they rated significantly lower than other print employees and dramatically lower than digital employees or senior managers.
Individuals in this group report being less satisfied than their Status Quo colleagues. They also have the lowest opinion of leaders of all the groups and are least likely, in particular, to believe executives really understand what it takes to put out the newspaper.
Leaders, at 5%, are publishers, editors and managing editors, most of whom have been in the news business more than 20 years. Most report their roles are primarily print-focused but want to shift to online. Like Digitals, they describe themselves as open to change and optimistic about their career options.
• Publishers, editors and managing editors indicate they are spending about a quarter of their work effort on online matters, but believe the emphasis should shift to favor digital (53%) over print responsibilities
• 28% of leaders think their job is changing too fast overall, which could reflect the lack of clarity around a business model to sustain digitally delivered journalism.
• Leaders tend to be more than a decade older (49), and 77% have been in the news business more than 20 years, including 42% for more than 30 years.
• Leaders are more confident in the overall direction of the newsroom, with nearly 70% saying the newsroom is on the right track, as compared to about 45% of Digitals.
• This group reports somewhat greater Internet use outside work than other journalists. On the job, they use the Internet as a reporting or editing tool, but likely not for much else. Given their druthers, they would post more, plan more and link more online.
The study concludes with challenge the leaders face:
• Journalists’ passion for the mission is there, but they need basic tools for reinvention and more engaged leadership. More than half of the journalists working primarily in print had no training in the previous year to equip them for a digital transition. One in four journalists reports having had no training at all
• There are major gaps between how leaders think they are doing and how staff view them, in such areas as fostering collaboration, seeking out input from employees at all levels, and communicating strategy in a way that relates to employees’ jobs
In addition, there are differing expectations for leaders among the segments:
• Digitals want leaders to be even more immersed in online trends and to sharpen the digital vision
• Major Shifts want more risk-taking
• Status Quos generally like what leaders are doing and advocate staying the course.

Source/Credits/More: : http://www.mediamanagementcenter.org/research/lifebeyondprint.asp